xv6课本翻译之,CYBESportageNET的键盘型与显示器型

来源:http://www.lfzhongying.com 作者:电竞游戏赛事竞猜平台 人气:102 发布时间:2019-07-19
摘要:

这个产品称不上新品了,不过这个键盘型主机我们之前曾经介绍过,所以就特别问问厂商一些问题。这样的东西,目前在台湾是没有卖的,不过他们会在台湾地区成立办事处,负责亚州相关的业务。笔者也有问到末端售价,他们说依规格不同而有不同的售价,笔者再问起最低规格价位,他们则说大约是一千美金起跳。

Appendix A

附录A

Dosen原创

<Computex 2008: CYBERNET's All-In-One PC Inside A Keyboard and All-In-One PC Inside A LCD Monitor>

PC hardware

Pc的硬件

 

This appendix describes personal computer (PC) hardware, the platform on which xv6 runs.

这个附录描述了xv6运行的平台——个人计算机(PC)的硬件。

 

A PC is a computer that adheres to several industry standards, with the goal that a given piece of software can run on PCs sold by multiple vendors. These standards evolve over time and a PC from 1990s doesn’t look like a PC now.

一个PC就是一台遵守许多工业标准,以给定的由多个厂家生产销售的一系列软件可以运行的计算机。随着时间的推移,从十九世纪九十年代的PC看起来和现在的并不完全一样。

 

From the outside a PC is a box with a keyboard, a screen, and various devices (e.g., CD-rom, etc.). Inside the box is a circuit board (the ‘‘motherboard’’) with CPU chips, memory chips, graphic chips, I/O controller chips, and busses through which the chips communicate. The busses adhere to standard protocols (e.g., PCI and USB) so that devices will work with PCs from multiple vendors.

从外部看,pc就是一个带有键盘、屏幕以及多个设备的盒子(比如CD驱动器等)。盒子的内部是一块电路主板(也叫主板),带有CPU芯片、内存芯片、显示芯片、I/O控制芯片以及连接各芯片的总线。总线遵守标准协议(如PCI和USB),这样多个厂商生产的设备可以和PC一起工作。

 

From our point of view, we can abstract the PC into three components: CPU, memory, and input/output (I/O) devices. The CPU performs computation, the memory contains instructions and data for that computation, and devices allow the CPU to interact with hardware for storage, communication, and other functions.

从我们的观点出发,可以把PC抽象为三个组成部分:CPU、内存和输入输出设备(I/O)。CPU负责计算,内存为计算存储指令和数据,外部设备允许CPU和硬件之间进行沟通,如存储、通讯和其他功能。

 

You can think of main memory as connected to the CPU with a set of wires, or lines, some for address bits, some for data bits, and some for control flags. To read a value from main memory, the CPU sends high or low voltages representing 1 or 0 bits on the address lines and a 1 on the ‘‘read’’ line for a prescribed amount of time and then reads back the value by interpreting the voltages on the data lines. To write a value to main memory, the CPU sends appropriate bits on the address and data lines and a 1 on the ‘‘write’’ line for a prescribed amount of time. Real memory interfaces are more complex than this, but the details are only important if you need to achieve high performance.

你可以把主存想成和CPU使用一系列的线连接在一起,有时是地址位,有时是数据位,有时是控制标志。从主存中读取值,CPU发送高或低电平代表1或0给每地址线,在读取线上一定时间内保持信号1,然后通过解释数据线上的电平,读回所代表的数值。写一个值到主存时,CPU给地址线和数据线上发送合适的值,并在写线上一定时间内保持信号1。真实的内存接口比这要复杂得多,但细节问题只有当你要达到高性能时才显得重要。

 

这是我学习quartz composer,Origami,看官方文档翻译下来的,每天一篇,有不准确的地方希望能指出,一起交流进步。转载请与我联系,擅自转载视作侵权。

This all-in-one PC inside a keyboard is not a new product, however, since we haven't written a report on this in the past, we decided to drop by and ask the manufacturer a few questions. This product is currently unavailable in Taiwan. However, Cybernet is planning to setup office in Taiwan soon, for promotion and sales operation in Asia. Starting from around $1000 USD, the prices are different for different models.

Processor and memory

处理器和内存

 

A computer’s CPU (central processing unit, or processor) runs a conceptually simple loop: it consults an address in a register called the program counter, reads a machine instruction from that address in memory, advances the program counter past the instruction, and executes the instruction. Repeat. If the execution of the instruction does not modify the program counter, this loop will interpret the memory pointed at by the program counter as a sequence of machine instructions to run one after the other. Instructions that do change the program counter include branches and function calls.

一个计算机的CPU(中央处理单元,或叫处理器)运行在一个概念上的简单循环:它从一个叫程序计数器的寄存器中取得地址,从那个内存地址中读取机器指令,根据指令长短增加程序计数器,执行这个指令。再次重复。如果指令的执行没有修改程序计数器,这个循环会把程序计数器指向的这个内存中的数据当作一连串的机器指令一个接一个地去运行。修改程序计数器的指令包括分支和功能调用。

 

The execution engine is useless without the ability to store and modify program data. The fastest storage for data is provided by the processor’s register set. A register is a storage cell inside the processor itself, capable of holding a machine word-sized value (typically 16, 32, or 64 bits). Data stored in registers can typically be read or written quickly, in a single CPU cycle.

如果没有了存储和个性程序数据的能力,执行引擎是没有用处的。对于数据来说最快的存取是处理器中提供的一系列的寄存器。寄存器是处理器内部提供的一个存储单元,可以容纳一个机器字大小的数值(典型的为16位、32位或64位)。寄存器中存储的数据能在一个CPU周期中被迅速地读写。

 

PCs have a processor that implements the x86 instruction set, which was originally defined by Intel and has become a standard. Several manufacturers produce processors that implement the instruction set. Like all other PC standards, this standard is also evolving but newer standards are backwards compatible with past standards. The boot loader has to deal with some of this evolution because every PC processor starts simulating an Intel 8088, the CPU chip in the original IBM PC released in 1981. However, for most of xv6 you will be concerned with the modern x86 instruction set.

PC的处理器,实现X86指令集。这个指令集最早由因特尔提出并成为标准。多个厂商生产实现这个指令集的处理器。象所有其他的PC标准一样,这个标准随着时间推移也在改变,但新的标准均会向后兼容旧的标准。启动器不得不应对这些发展。因为每个PC处理器在开机时均模拟成因特尔的8088,这个CPU芯片是最早IBM PC在1981年发布的。然而,在xv6中,大部分情况是你仅需要关心现代x86指令集。

 

The modern x86 provides eight general purpose 32-bit registers—

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